While all efforts have been made to present an accurate account of the status of the Silk Roads in the countries covered, some part of the information provided and the analyses thereof are those of the contributors, and does not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The contributors are responsible for the choice and representation of the facts contained in this portal and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.


Enriched with one of the world's oldest civilizations, a fabled high valley of vast glaciers and snow-capped peaks, the legendary gardens of Shalimar and a famed mountain pass whose name is synonymous with adventure, the remains and ruins of Moenjedoro, Taxila and early Muslim or Mughal civilizations, the Silk Roads heritage is obvious everywhere in Pakistan.

For centuries, the southern part of the land Silk Roads, wound its way to south from Central Asia, across some of the highest mountains in the world, down through modern Pakistan and then curved east into India (Hindustan) or continued south to the Arabian Sea.

Pakistani authorities try to revive the old trade routes through diverse initiatives. These efforts received a boost with the opening two decades ago of the Karakoram Highway which joins the remote northern reaches of the country with the Chinese Region of Xinjiang the historical routes of trades and exchange are still alive.

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The Silk Roads on the Map

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