The study of Mongolia’s cultural ecology poses numerous difficulties, due to the size of the territory and the lack of archaeological and historical data. Cultural ecology analyses the interaction between humans and their environment, which is shaped by culture. It seems promising to apply a research strategy which uses tools from various disciplines. Remote sensing, for instance via satellite images, allows to examine physical and biological environments and detect traces of human activities. This is combined with archaeological studies and documentary research, which has to take into account the impact of environmental factors on human behaviour. Finally, ethnographic research among living populations yields relevant results, especially since many traditions have survived in Mongolia over a long period of time. Comparisons with ethnographic studies from past centuries provide information about cultural changes.